Cannabis Use by Pregnant Women

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Researchers from Kaiser Permanente Northern California wrote a research letter published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on December 26, 2017, Trends in Self-reported and Biochemically Tested Marijuana Use Among Pregnant Females in California From 2009-2016.

The researchers found:

“From 2009 through 2016, the adjusted prevalence of prenatal marijuana use based on self-report or toxicology increased from 4.2% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.5%) to 7.1% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.5%) and was higher based on toxicology than selfreport each year (Figure 1). Linear trend tests found use increased at an annual rate of 1.075 for self-report or toxicology (95% CI, 1.064-1.085; P < .001), 1.083 for toxicology (95% CI, 1.072-1.094; P < .001), and 1.062 for self-report (95% CI, 1.048-1.075; P < .001). "The adjusted prevalence based on self-report or toxicology increased significantly from 2009 to 2016 for each age group (Figure 2). Use among females younger than 18 years to age 24 years increased the most, from 12.5% (95% CI, 10.3%-14.7%) to 21.8% (95% CI, 16.5%-27.2%) for those younger than 18 years and from 9.8% (95% CI, 9.0%- 10.6%) to 19.0% (95% CI, 17.8%-20.2%) for those aged 18 to 24 years. Use among women aged 25 to 34 years increased from 3.4% (95% CI, 3.1%-3.7%) to 5.1% (95% CI, 4.7%-5.4%) and use among women older than 34 years increased from 2.1% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.5%) to 3.3% (95% CI, 2.9%-3.7%). Linear trend tests found prenatal use increased at an annual relative rate of 1.088 for females younger than 18 years (95% CI, 1.037-1.142; P = .01), 1.092 for those aged 18 to 24 years (95% CI, 1.076-1.108; P < .001), 1.080 for those aged 25 to 34 (95% CI, 1.047-1.113; P < .001), and 1.057 for those older than 34 years (95% CI, 1.042-1.072; P < .001). Trends varied by age (P = .02)."

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